The Spirit of Resistance 8

The story of the Metis people is conjoined with the anti-monopolist policy western society identifies itself with. One wonders in whose eyes the actions of the Northwest Company against the Hudson’s Bay Company’s take over bid would appear mistaken.  A settlement is planted right across the trade route of a company. It causes a reaction, albeit a very extreme one. The leader of the group, Cuthbert Grant leads the revolt and  then somehow goes on to become a community leader.

The term “freeman” in many of the history books, generally refers to a Metis fur trader. He might have been a voyageur, a trapper, a trader, a fisherman or a trip man. In other words he did what he had to to survive. His character might have been a little questionable but his skills were not.

In 1841,  Governor George Simpson decided that he would send a party of colonists overland to Oregon under James Sinclair, a Scots Metis. This would keep a British presence there as well as reduce the population of the colony. That in turn, would reduce the illegal traffic in furs. Oregon at the time was much larger than today, including Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, as well as parts of Wyoming and Montana.

James Sinclair Photo

Sinclair was one of the leading freighters and private traders in the settlement and a possible threat to the company. In June 1841, 23 families set out for Edmonton House, 1500 kilometres away.  They would risk being swept away crossing the Saskatchewan River, a mile wide at some points. They would be travelling in “Indian Country” where the Blackfoot, Assiniboine, Piegan and Cree fought over the land.

The orders Simpson left at Edmonton House were ignored by Sinclair who decided to seek a little glory for himself by finding a different route. They traveled on to Banff and Canmore to cross the Bow River. Soon, they realized they would have to abandon their carts and form a mule train. The animals, not used to carrying loads, threw off their loads and the company had to repack.

Nine days later, the company passed through the Columbia River Valley and onto the Kootenay Plains. They were finally on the west side of the divide, in a land of glaciers. After passing through Canal Flats, they followed the Kootenay River southward. and through Idaho. A stop at Fort Colville and on to Fort Walla Walla ( Fort Nez Perce). Again, on their way to Fort Vancouver, they passed through hostile country. Finally, they arrived at Fort Vancouver where HBC Governor Simpson awaited with bad news.

Similarly to the arrival at Red River in 1812, Simpson could not meet his promises. Authorization from London had not come through. There would be no houses, cattle or plows. Chief Factor of Fort Vancouver and Head of the Columbia District, John McLoughlin, would be of no use, he had become convinced of the “Manifest Destiny” of the Americans after the wagon trains started pouring into the country.  Many of the settlers decided to leave for the Willamette Valley and their families remain there to this day.

During this time, the decision about where the border between Canada (Britain) and the United States would run was being argued.  It became known as the “Oregon Question”. The British argued that territorial law stated that only lands that had been discovered and settled, conquered or ceded, could be acquired by a country. Still, Simpson did not see how the company could provide for and establish agricultural colonies in the land fast enough.

Canada being run from abroad by nobility who viewed it only as a colony and a source of profit in the face of the determination and quick action of the Americans was not a winning proposal. On June 14, 1846, Simpson walked away with a line running the 49th parallel and losing a huge and productive area. Once again, the Metis people showed their courage and resilience against an indifferent government.

 

 

The Spirit of Resistance 7

The aboriginal people of Canada have often been referred to as a “stone-age people” at the time of contact with the Europeans in the early seventeenth century. One might even perceive the buffalo hunt as being a demonstration of this, comparing it to the mammoth hunts of their ancestors.  Let us see how the hunt out of Selkirk went in July of 1840. The Métis and Scot half-breeds comprised nearly half the colony.  In spite of  their lack of property they “held themselves above all restraint”. One might assume they had inherited the aboriginal belief that the land could not be owned.

As soon as spring arrived, a type of mania took hold of the colony, with the hunters borrowing everything they would need for the hunt on the promise of payment after the hunt. This led to a system of  “long credit” which did not help the borrower or the lender. The hunt was much bigger than one would imagine, with some 1,630 “souls” travelling along with perhaps even a member of the British nobility, taking part in the “pleasures of the chase”.  Their was no distinction given them as they sat down to a dinner of fresh buffalo-steak.

Let us look at a list of supplies ( including employees)  purchased (again mostly on credit) by the hunters.
1210 carts
620 hunters ( for the two months they would be away)
620 women (again for the two month period)
360 boys and girls
740 guns
150 gallons of gunpowder
1300 pounds of trading balls
6240 gun flints
100 steel daggers
100 (skinning knives)
403 buffalo runners
655 cart horses
586 draught oxen
1210 sets of harness
403 riding saddles
403 bridles and whips
1240 scalping knives
448 half axes
Camp equipment ( tents, cooking equipment etc.)
Total-£24,000 (roughly $107,000 American in 1800)

Finally the entourage gathered on the open plain where a roll was called and rules for the journey were decided. Leaders for the trip were named as all the carts were placed side by side with the trams outward forming a circle. Within this circle, the tents were placed in double treble rows on one end and the animals were placed at the other end in front of the tents as protection against an attack by enemies, particularly the Sioux. They were followed by a  pack of 543 hungry dogs . The dogs were a necessity in the winter as sled dogs when the horses could not make it through the snow. The hunter would wrestle the dogs into their traces and then donning his wolf costume, throw himself on the sled to get among the herd where he would silently kill the buffalo with bow and arrow.

Once they were settled, 10 captains were chosen, one of them the head captain. Under these 10, were placed 10 soldiers and under these, 10 guides. The guides duties rotated by day and each carried the flag their day. It was raised every morning to signal the raising of camp. Half an hour was allowed to be ready to march but this could be delayed by circumstance. The guide controlled all that happened in camp by day but when the flag was lowered the captains and soldiers began their duties. Like clockwork, carts were guided into position.

By now, they had arrived at Pembina and were preparing to move further out onto the plain to find the buffalo. Rules were made for the hunt.

  1. No buffalo hunting on Sunday.
  2. No one was to separate from the expedition.
  3. No one was to start before the general order
  4. Every captain was to patrol and guard the camp.
  5. For the first trespass of these rules, the offender was to have his saddle and bridle cut up.
  6. For the second offence, the offender’s coat was to be taken and cut up.
  7. For the third offence, the offender was to be flogged (whipped).
  8. Any person convicted of theft of any kind, was to be brought to the middle of the camp and shamed by having his name called out followed by the word “Thief”.

Although the punishments seem a little mild, there were very few if any misdemeanors in the camp. A priest was always there to accompany the expedition.

A break to rest the animals might be taken during the day.  Again, the flag ruled. When it was raised you moved, when it was down you stopped. The general start and stop times would be half an hour, the distance traveled 20 miles in a day.  If anyone lagged behind, the captain and soldiers would chastise him but make sure his cart was in line quickly.

At the end of day the officials would gather somewhere away to discuss the days events and plan for the next day. Conversation would inevitably lead to politics at which point the men would exclaim against any type of control on their society. Were they not all great and free men, free to live the way they saw fit? The plains were their home. Later, wandering the camp, Ross came upon some of the families of these men and found them, to his great consternation bordering on destitution. He bemoaned the hunters lack of forethought, their “feast or famine” way of life.

There was no actual way of telling where the buffalo would be. The course would generally be to the southwest, where the sources of the rivers were. The party of 1840 would travel some 250 miles before they came within sight of the buffalo. In no time, 400 hunters were assembled and ready for the chase. Like an army charging, they would start at a trot but were soon racing towards the buffalo which did not notice them until they were four or five hundred yards away. By the time they took flight, the riders were among them, guns fired, the air was filled with clouds of dust. The earth quaked with the weight of the racing herd. The fattest cows were always the most desirable and only the fastest horses could get to them at the front of the herd. The hunter, his mouth full of  musket balls, loaded his gun as he road. The best horses were trained to jump aside after a shot to avoid tripping over the wounded animal.

The hunter wasted no time getting to the animal to skin and butcher it. Most were surprisingly able to identify their kill. He kept a vigilant eye out for the enemy, a lurking Sioux only too willing to take his scalp. If this did happen, men from the camp would pursue the culprits and bring them down. Many runners were gored by a bull. The day was short and this led to many carcasses being abandoned, a factor in the decimation of the bison. If it rained the meat would be ruined. When the men returned with the hides and meat the work of the women commenced and that work was very labor intensive. At this hunt, 2500 animals were killed but only the meat of 750 animals was processed.  The chase was the greater part of the attraction. Many continued to go hungry in spite of the large kill.

The group next traveled to Missouri where the Americans charged them more than double the Canadian price for whatever goods they fancied, including the whiskey forbidden for trade in Canada. Wherever the party stopped, they would continue drying the meat for the trip home and soon they were caught up in the animosities of the Sioux and Saulteaux. The Metis, by befriending the Saulteaux put themselves in danger but managed to get back to Pembina where the parties broke up for the trip home. Once they returned, the HBC took its agreed upon share and  the market for the farmers produce dropped . After he had paid a little to his debtors the hunter was content to live off of his own surplus until the next hunt.  I am going to venture and say that it is highly probable that many of my Daigneault and Cyr ancestors went out on the buffalo hunt.

The Spirit of Resistance 6

In his book, The Red River Settlement, It’s Rise, Progress, and Present State, Alexander Ross describes three classes of Metis people who frequented the settlement.   The highest were the buffalo hunters who naturally, through pemmican sales, could afford to equip themselves for the hunt. The hunters were followed by the fishermen who lived near the lakes, surviving on fish. The lowest class were extremely poor, lacking both means and ambition. You could find them trailing in the wake of the hunt looking for any kind of subsistence. Also among the lower class were the old voyageurs and orphans. The Metis were a wondering people flowing in from lands east of the Rockies, using the Red River area as a rendezvous point.

Ross gives us an amusing anecdote about travel with a friend where the party comes upon a log hut in the woods. The guide introduces them to a family within, a husband, wife, elder daughter and a four-year-old. On the floor, four men are asleep, travelers. There is no furniture except for the bed the girl is sleeping on. Soon the rain comes and the roof is torn off. The floor becomes covered with water. No one seems too upset.

The child goes over to the fire to light a pipe of tobacco for her mother. She hands it to her mother and commences suckling after which she cries for the pipe. It is duly filled and handed to her. She then passes it to her father who then passes it to the older girl. The family would like to offer tea but they have none. Ross supplies it and they drink cup after cup of strong black tea. There is no food for the fish are low so Ross supplies food as well. The family regales their guests with tales of their winter with the Assiniboines. There they worked all winter tanning hides and preparing provisions which they sold for the highly prized tea, a staple of their diet along with fish and tobacco.

Relying on the buffalo was not as noble and idyllic as media would have us believe. In December of 1826, winter storms drove the buffalo ever onward away from the hunters towards Pembina, North Dakota. The weather was so severe that it killed the horses and put the people on foot.  It took some time for news of the disaster to reach the settlement during which horses, dogs, and even shoe leather were eaten. Many were found crawling along in the snow but some were found buried or frozen trying to survive. On the heels of this disaster followed a terrible flood during the spring break-up where not only the waters rose but the ice along with it to sweep everything away. This ice traveled to Lake Winnipeg and collided with the ice there which created a back-flow. The community was ready to move on until suddenly the water fell. The price of available goods sky-rocketed. The De Meuron soldiers who had come to the colony to defend it, now sold the settlers own cows back to them for exorbitant prices.

When I was a child my father told me stories of the great flood that hit Winnipeg just years before I was born. He amused me by telling me how people were rowing boats and canoes past the windows of their house.

It is worth thinking about the community as a whole in this instance. The Scots willingly helped the less fortunate Metis during these times, just as the Metis helped them by providing pemmican when they first arrived.

The Spirit of Resistance 5

It is hard to say whether Selkirk had any real notion of the circumstances the Scottish settlers would find themselves in when they arrived on the banks of the Red River (modern-day Winnipeg) in 1812. The journey to that point had already been an arduous one. Not long after their arrival, they were met by men “painted, disfigured and dressed in the savage costume of the country”, employees of the Northwest Company who ordered them out.  These were the “half-breeds” French and Scots. A new colony would block the company’s trade route to the northwest.

The new settlers, already exhausted, decided to continue on to Pembina, 69 miles away in North Dakota. Soon, they were followed by a group of Metis offering to guide them but this time working under their own egis. The language we now know as “Michif” did not seem to hamper negotiations and a rigorous trade was done leaving many of the colonists bereft of prized possessions including wedding rings and family heirlooms. In Pembina, the winter was spent living on the “products of the chase”. The next year, since no crops had survived, they returned to Pembina. This time they were surprised at the selfish behavior of the Metis and had to barter away some of their clothing to survive. They did not return back to the colony much better off than when they had left.

Out of this desperate situation, the Pemmican Proclamation arose, denying any outside trading of goods that were brought into or were a product of the colony. including pemmican. This started a type of civil war between the “Norwesters”, largely Metis and the Hudson’s Bay Company. It later became known as the “Pemmican Wars”.  The trade in buffalo products would be curtailed, thus reducing the livelihood of the Metis. It became so bad that some of the colonists actually joined their enemies in order to survive. Hatred welled until their homes were eventually burned to the ground.

Under the leadership of an educated Scotch half-breed named Cuthbert Grant, an order was issued,  “All settlers to retire immediately from the River and no appearance of a colony to remain.” It was signed by Cuthbert Grant, Bostanais Pangman, William Shaw and Bonhomme Montour.

My 4th great grandfather, Dugald Cameron, whom I have mentioned previously was a very willing participant in all of the events leading up to the of the “Battle of Seven Oaks”.  Speaking the Gaelic tongue and using it to inspire dissension among the settlers, he sent many off to Canada (Quebec) with the promise of land and goods. The determination of the settlers was paid with violence and upheaval. Those that did not leave moved up to Norway House, then called Jack River. Cuthbert Grant seeing the way events were going, attempted to stop the bloodshed but most of the men with Robert Semple were shot down. There still remains controversy over who fired the first shot.  Among the list of casualties, we find Toissant Vaudry another 4th great-grandfather who lost an arm. Alexander Ross states that it would have been better if Semple had gone out to talk on his own instead of displaying arms. The battle called Lord Selkirk back to the colony with a group of disbanded soldiers known as the “de Meurons” and led to actions on his part for which he would pay dearly.

Among my ancestors who may have been part of the uprising would be Charles, Jean and Pierre Beauchamp, Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere, Toussaint Vaudry, Louis Cyr, Joseph Daigneault and of course John Dugal Cameron through his wife Marie Lesperance.

Quotes are from Alexander Ross “The Red River Settlement: It’s Rise, Progress and Present State, Published 1856

The Spirit of Resistance 4

In 1834, the infant Red River Colony was surrounded on all sides by First Nations people. The Cree and Assiniboine on the west, the Saulteaux on the east, the  swampy Crees on the north and the Sioux to the south.  The general state was one of peaceful co-existence. The Sioux perhaps the most powerful tribe on the continent at the time, had begun to disperse and move west but was still large enough to pose a major threat to the colony. Problems arose from the competition between the Cree and Saulteaux for control of their land. The Saulteaux had been included in the treaty made with Lord Selkirk because they were present at the time but this was not their homeland  The Cree very much resented the fact. They threatened to remove the Saulteaux along with the white settlers if their names were not stricken from the treaty.  This at times would send the panicked  colonists running for shelter to the forts and armed men out in scouting parties to search the settlement for any sign of trouble. Many of the settlers hesitated to sign their deeds until they were secure. The Saulteaux did not have a good reputation in the colony, spending much of their time annoying the colonists by begging. Education was lost on them and many were condemned for murder and theft.

The Sioux were the great warriors of the plains, occupying the huge region between Pembina, North Dakota and St. Peter’s, in the south. The center of their land was about 300 miles from the Red River colony. Many would travel north to the colony for the pure adventure of it where they would be given minor gifts to return with as well as a story of courage and bravery.  The stories were always recited at gatherings where the gifts of tobacco or ammunition would be dispersed.

Two visits by the Sioux were recorded by George Simpson, governor of the HBC.  In 1834, the Sioux chief, Burning Earth with 36 men arrived at Fort Garry. Things were going well until a party of Saulteaux rode in threatening revenge for the loss of their relatives by the Sioux. Simpson stationed a guard for the Sioux and escorted them back out to the open plains where they would be at greater advantage. When the Saulteaux pursued them across the river in canoe, the governor raised his gun to order them back. The colonists cried out in alarm leading the Saulteaux to think they wanted the shooting. There were 100 armed Saulteaux to 7 or 8 armed Sioux. Finally, one of the colonists struck down Simpson’s gun, preventing a full-blown massacre.

On another occasion, Fort Garry was visited by the great Sioux chief, Wanatah who arrived with 250 armed men.  He left 180 warriors back while he approached the Fort with 70. Since they were received cordially there was no trouble.  The Sioux visited the colony on 2 more occasions. Although Governor Simpson wrote that a lasting peace had been affected between the Saulteaux and the Sioux, the author, Alexander Ross then sherif of the colony did not believe such “deadly animosity” could ever allow the breach to be mended.

 

The Spirit of Resistance 2

After the rout of the North West Company at Red River in 1816, Governor Robert Semple had Fort Gibraltar torn down and the materials used to strengthen Fort Douglas (later to become Winnipeg).  The Nor’westers  inciting the Metis to regain a supply of pemmican that was being held at Brandon House , were gathering an army of Metis further up the Assiniboine.  Their leader was Cuthbert Grant the educated son of a Scottish trader.  Trouble started when they plundered  Brandon House  then headed for the colony. They struck off to the north-east planning to meet up with a company the HBC had promised from Fort William.  The company held back, leaving the onus on the Metis for any attack on the colony.  Semple, alerted to the arrival of the Metis, went out with thirty men to face Grant. The colony was in an uproar as people rushed for the shelter of Fort Douglas.

Seven tall oaks stood on Frog Plain where the two forces met on June 19, 1816 and the battle became the “Battle of Seven Oaks”.  Semple was approached by a man called Francois Boucher.  Semple asked what he wanted . The reply was “we want our fort”. Semple said  “Well go to your fort” and grabbed Boucher’s gun. A shot was fired from somewhere undetermined while fire continued from the other men.  Semple went down with 21 of his men. Only 1 Metis was lost. Again, the settlers ran for Norway House.  The event has been described by A.L. Burt,  ” A number of half-civilized Metis committed a crime at the bidding of a number of lawless Canadian merchants” (the Nor’westers). That opinion has been the source of much debate over the years.

Selkirk, in Montreal,  was heading to the colony with Swiss soldiers who had fought against the U.S. in the War of 1812. They were known as “De Meurons”. On his way, he was met by Miles Macdonell who told him of the attack at which point Selkirk decided to seize Fort William (now Thunder Bay). Several captives were being held there by the Nor’westers and he found orders for the attack on the Red River colony. After that he decided to stay on for the winter for lack of supplies. Macdonell was sent by snowshoe and sledge to Fort Douglas to regain control of the Fort.

InkedTrading_Posts_Canoe_Routes clip Ft.Will to Ft.Garry_Dot

Locations of Fort William and Fort Garry  (relative area of Fort Douglas)

In the spring of 1817, the colonists returned once again with Selkirk at the helm, planning and building the settlement. He had lost over half a million dollars do so but still forgave the settlers their debt to him. He had the first Indian treaty signed in the Northwest where they gave up claim to the land lying along the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. Things went well until Selkirk  was called to attend the lawsuits brought against him by the Northwest Company for his attack on Fort William and resisting arrest. He left the colony on September 9, 1817 and would not see it again. The rest of his ilfe was plagued by legal problems with no support to be found in Canada or Britain. He died in April, 1820.

The Northwest Company, though rich in furs, could no longer bear the expenses of the trial and expansion over the Rocky Mountains. Selkirk had effectively blocked a union with the Hudson’s Bay Company.  Now he was dead. In 1821 the two trading companies combined to form one of the largest controlling agents in the world under the HBC banner.

The Spirit of Resistance

On November 16, 1885, a lone figure stood silently on the gallows waiting to meet his destiny.  His name was Louis David Riel and he was my first cousin 4 times removed. Below, a clip from Ancestry linking my father to the Lagimodiere family from whom Riel`s mother, Julie sprang. Julie`s brother Romain was my  3rd great-grandfather.

Riel Connection snip

You can see in the chart the names that were well-known in the Red River Settlement, Lagimodiere, Diagneault, Cyr, Thibault. Other names in the family were Jennie Cameron, Mary Inkster, Catherine Martineau and of course, Marie Anne Gaboury.  Further back in the family one finds the more obscure appellations, Marie…..(Lesperance), Charlotte….., Josette….(Indienne) and Suzanne Sauteuse. On the 1901 Census of Canada, my great-grandfather, William Daigneault declared  himself and his family as being French Metis (M.F.) and Red in skin colour.

The settlement was established at the confluence of the northern Red and Assiniboine rivers which is in modern-day Winnipeg, Manitoba. It had been a prominent trading place for the aboriginal people of the area, the Cree and Ojibwa among them.  Before that prehistoric people had camped and traded there. These two rivers were part of a canoe route that joined with the Mississippi and Missouri rivers on the southern trade route.

in 1783, the first trading post was built by Pierre Gualtier de la Verendrye. He named it Forte Rouge or Red River.  Many of the French trappers who traded there married First Nations women which eventually led to the creation of a new culture, the Metis.  Initially, there was a society dominated by the First Nations people of the area with whom the French were on amicable terms .

For the main part, the French traders and their offspring blended with the First Nations culture . The buffalo hunt remained one of the main features of life among the people.  Sedentary farming did not come naturally to them. It didn’t even make sense. The winters were long and freezing,  in the spring the Red River would storm its banks and flood the area. The summers were hot and humid and the tall prairie grasses provided ideal forage for the hundreds of buffalo which roamed freely.

The land that had been owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company as part of its vast empire was called Rupert’s Land and it had been given complete authority over it.  Now, the Company’s fortunes were waning. It proved to be a fortunate time for a wealthy and very idealistic  young nobleman, Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk. When his brother died, he inherited a great fortune.  He also had a compassionate heart and hoped to transplant hundreds of Scots who were being driven off their land during the Highland Clearances.

Selkirk realized that to gain enough land he would have to become a major shareholder in the Hudson’s Bay Company.  He bought as much stock as possible and then asked for a grant of 116,000 square miles which covered parts of  present day Manitoba, North Dakota and Minnesota. In May, 1811, the deed was granted willingly, they knew he was likely to lose money.

The first colonists arrived from the Hebrides in Scotland in the summer of 1811. At their head was Miles Macdonell also a Scot and appointed governor of the colony. They had to spend the winter at York Factory before they could come. In August 1812, they arrived at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers and settled at Point Douglas. After they took formal possession of the land, they continued on to Fort Daer on the Pembina River in North Dakota to find food.  The Metis people there supplied them with fish and pemmican made from the buffalo they hunted.  In 1813 more colonists arrived  and they all sowed crops together on long strip plots running back from the river.  The sowing was too late however and the crops failed.

The men who worked for the HBC resented the extra trouble of  having to help the new settlers and the stricter rules Selkirk was enforcing on them. They could not easily make private deals for extra money now. At Fort York, some of Macdonell’s men had been persuaded against him and he found himself with no supplies when they finally got to Point Douglas.

Selkirk had no notion of how serious the rivalry was between the HBC and the North West Company. The Northwest Company was composed largely of Metis and French from Montreal. The settlement lay across the path to the Athabasca country where the Nor’Westers gained most of their wealth. The King’s charter had granted the HBC only the lands that drained into the Hudson Bay. The Athabasca drained into the Arctic but to get to it the Nor’Westers would have to cross what was becoming British territory. They had been able to do this until now because there weren’t enough men to stop them.  The new settlement was composed of British people, faithful to Selkirk who could help close the gates to the Athabasca.  The fur trade war intensified.

Below, a map of trading posts and canoe routes:

Trading_Posts_Canoe_Routes

Trading Posts and Canoe Routes -Cristian Ionata-edmaps.com 

The map shows the canoe routes up to Athabasca country where the highest quality furs were found (colder weather made for thicker furs). From Fort Garry and up through Lake Manitoba to  Fort Cumberland  and then to Ile a La Crosse and the Athabasca River, the source of which lies in Jasper National Park, Alberta. At Ile a La Crosse we find mention of Jean Baptiste Beauchamp who travelled with Peter Skene Ogden on the Snake River Expeditons which I have written about hereRichard Daigneault is listed as an employee of the HBC in 1804 here. Jean Baptiste and Vincent Daigneault (my grandmother’s maiden name) are listed as HBC employees for 1855-6 here.

The NWC tried preventing the colonists from even arriving at the settlement by complaining to officials in Britain but did not accomplish that.  Then they tried to stop the Metis at Fort Pembina from selling supplies to the colonists.  Back at Fort Garry, they made every attempt to get the them to desert. They found themselves caught in the trade war.

Macdonell decided to act by issuing the “Pemmican Proclamation” in January 8th, 1814. For one year no supplies were to be taken out the colony without permission. He began to seize pemmican from the Nor’Westers and supervised provisioning of all canoes traveling between Lake Superior and the Athabasca country.  In June of that year the Montreal partners of the NWC arrived and decided that the colony must be destroyed entirely. The settlers were promised free passage and provisions to resettle in Upper Canada (Ontario) or be driven off.

Commander of Fort Gibraltar, Duncan Cameron, tried to win the settlers over with parties and talk of coming on side with the NWC . He even spoke Gaelic to them. When that failed he tried to raise  insurrection among the Metis by driving home the fact that they were forbidden to sell pemmican and that their land was being stolen . The Metis, reverting to the ways of their mothers, intimidated the settlers by killing horses, taking guns and plundering houses. They were setting the stage for what became known as the “Pemmican Wars”. Finally, in June, Macdonell decided it was in the settlers best interests that they give up the fight. It was too late. He and 134 deserting settlers were taken by Duncan Cameron to Fort William where he was to be charged with robbing the company. He did not get charged but the settlers proceeded to Upper Canada to settle.

Likewise,  the settlers who stayed behind were driven out and fled to Norway House on Lake Winnipeg. While they were there, a brigade of HBC officials was making its way from Montreal to the settlement on the Red River.  When they arrived and heard what was happening, they continued to Norway House to bring the settlers back. A few stubborn men had stayed behind to build Fort Douglas and start some crops. On November 3 of 1814, another group of colonists arrived with a new governor, Robert Semple. A second colony had been planted. Below, a map of the Red River Settlement as it was in 1818.

Map RRS 1818

Red River Settlement 1818 -Scan from The Romance of the Prairies by A.L. Burt

Right click on the image to open it in a new tab.