The Spirit of Resistance 4

In 1834, the infant Red River Colony was surrounded on all sides by First Nations people. The Cree and Assiniboine on the west, the Saulteaux on the east, the  swampy Crees on the north and the Sioux to the south.  The general state was one of peaceful co-existence. The Sioux perhaps the most powerful tribe on the continent at the time, had begun to disperse and move west but was still large enough to pose a major threat to the colony. Problems arose from the competition between the Cree and Saulteaux for control of their land. The Saulteaux had been included in the treaty made with Lord Selkirk because they were present at the time but this was not their homeland  The Cree very much resented the fact. They threatened to remove the Saulteaux along with the white settlers if their names were not stricken from the treaty.  This at times would send the panicked  colonists running for shelter to the forts and armed men out in scouting parties to search the settlement for any sign of trouble. Many of the settlers hesitated to sign their deeds until they were secure. The Saulteaux did not have a good reputation in the colony, spending much of their time annoying the colonists by begging. Education was lost on them and many were condemned for murder and theft.

The Sioux were the great warriors of the plains, occupying the huge region between Pembina, North Dakota and St. Peter’s, in the south. The center of their land was about 300 miles from the Red River colony. Many would travel north to the colony for the pure adventure of it where they would be given minor gifts to return with as well as a story of courage and bravery.  The stories were always recited at gatherings where the gifts of tobacco or ammunition would be dispersed.

Two visits by the Sioux were recorded by George Simpson, governor of the HBC.  In 1834, the Sioux chief, Burning Earth with 36 men arrived at Fort Garry. Things were going well until a party of Saulteaux rode in threatening revenge for the loss of their relatives by the Sioux. Simpson stationed a guard for the Sioux and escorted them back out to the open plains where they would be at greater advantage. When the Saulteaux pursued them across the river in canoe, the governor raised his gun to order them back. The colonists cried out in alarm leading the Saulteaux to think they wanted the shooting. There were 100 armed Saulteaux to 7 or 8 armed Sioux. Finally, one of the colonists struck down Simpson’s gun, preventing a full-blown massacre.

On another occasion, Fort Garry was visited by the great Sioux chief, Wanatah who arrived with 250 armed men.  He left 180 warriors back while he approached the Fort with 70. Since they were received cordially there was no trouble.  The Sioux visited the colony on 2 more occasions. Although Governor Simpson wrote that a lasting peace had been affected between the Saulteaux and the Sioux, the author, Alexander Ross then sherif of the colony did not believe such “deadly animosity” could ever allow the breach to be mended.


The Spirit of Resistance 3

We get a better picture of what our ancestors were like if we can place them in the context of their times.  The Metis people were primarily descendants of the French fur traders. The French fur traders were from Quebec, often listed as “Canada” but their families may have been there for only a few hundred years if that. The Quebecois were primarily of Norman origin and are famous for retaining the culture of their ancestors. That became a little harder to do when you came west. The country was a creation of vastness, sweeps of prairie grass as far as the eye could see, raging rivers roaring out of the mountains only to trickle down to a creek, crippling cold….

There were people who could not deal with the isolation and hardship. Few could make the return trip home. Many came to escape oppression or poverty and many died in the attempt, especially women and children, for the promise of freedom.

You may have grown up with immigrant grandparents who retained a heavy British accent which left you with a “twang” often mistaken for a Texas accent. That is a problem I had into my 30’s.  You may have strange and wonderful memories of relatives you never did get to know,  like the man with black braids and buckskin I saw mending the roof of my Metis grandmother’s house.

During the times of the fur trade wars and Metis rebellions, members of my family were present in Selkirk and St. Boniface, Manitoba.
From Spraque and Frye’s Genealogy of the First Metis Nation:
Table 1: Genealogies of Red River Households, 1818-1870
Jean Beauchamp and Angelique Pangman
Pierre Cyr and Marie Anne Lagimonier 1) Angeliqe Klyne 2)
Joseph Daigneault and Genevieve Cameron
Louis Cyr and Catherine Martineau
Roman Lagmoniere and Marie Vaudry
Dougal Cameron and Marie Lesperance 
Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere and Marie Anne Gaboury
Toussant Vaudry and Marie Anne Crebassa

Again, the Marie Anne Lagimonier above was Louis Riel Jr’s cousin as his mother was Julie Lagimoniere.

I think it is important to note that the Metis people were a distinct society, separate from the French and First Nations. Many people ask about the native people in your family but that track could have been very long ago at the start of the fur trade.  Only a few generations passed before mixed blood began to dominate and the fur traders actually married Metis women. The marriages began to be between Metis people themselves, although culturally, the buffalo hunt kept native tradition alive. Also, you may have been from a line where the father was a Scot and generally would have been termed a half-breed.

What were some of the cultural symbols of Metis society?

The Flag

An infinity symbol representing the future of the Metis people.  It was changed to red for the hunt.

The Red River Cart
Related image

Built as a reliable means of transportation over rough ground and known for the high squeal of it’s wheels. It was an all wood construction. Trains would go out on the buffalo hunts to carry back hundreds of pounds of buffalo meat.

The Sash
Image result for metis sash

Worn over the left shoulder by women and around the waist (usually to hold a capote closed) by men.  The capote commonly made from a HBC blanket.

Image result for metis capote


Image result for making pemmican

Dried buffalo meat mixed with berries which was a survival food for the native people, passed to the Metis who gained a livelihood from it. It became their main commerce for canoes travelling between forts. Later, the Selkirk settlers would also rely on it to survive. After the buffalo hunt, the women did all the work, skinning, tanning and curing meat.

Fiddle Music and Step Dancing

Here is a sample of  the music and dance of the Metis people from a town close to where my mother grew up Dauphin, Manitoba, Four Nations Square Dancers.

The Spirit of Resistance 2

After the rout of the North West Company at Red River in 1816, Governor Robert Semple had Fort Gibraltar torn down and the materials used to strengthen Fort Douglas (later to become Winnipeg).  The Nor’westers  inciting the Metis to regain a supply of pemmican that was being held at Brandon House , were gathering an army of Metis further up the Assiniboine.  Their leader was Cuthbert Grant the educated son of a Scottish trader.  Trouble started when they plundered  Brandon House  then headed for the colony. They struck off to the north-east planning to meet up with a company the HBC had promised from Fort William.  The company held back, leaving the onus on the Metis for any attack on the colony.  Semple, alerted to the arrival of the Metis, went out with thirty men to face Grant. The colony was in an uproar as people rushed for the shelter of Fort Douglas.

Seven tall oaks stood on Frog Plain where the two forces met on June 19, 1816 and the battle became the “Battle of Seven Oaks”.  Semple was approached by a man called Francois Boucher.  Semple asked what he wanted . The reply was “we want our fort”. Semple said  “Well go to your fort” and grabbed Boucher’s gun. A shot was fired from somewhere undetermined while fire continued from the other men.  Semple went down with 21 of his men. Only 1 Metis was lost. Again, the settlers ran for Norway House.  The event has been described by A.L. Burt,  ” A number of half-civilized Metis committed a crime at the bidding of a number of lawless Canadian merchants” (the Nor’westers). That opinion has been the source of much debate over the years.

Selkirk, in Montreal,  was heading to the colony with Swiss soldiers who had fought against the U.S. in the War of 1812. They were known as “De Meurons”. On his way, he was met by Miles Macdonell who told him of the attack at which point Selkirk decided to seize Fort William (now Thunder Bay). Several captives were being held there by the Nor’westers and he found orders for the attack on the Red River colony. After that he decided to stay on for the winter for lack of supplies. Macdonell was sent by snowshoe and sledge to Fort Douglas to regain control of the Fort.

InkedTrading_Posts_Canoe_Routes clip Ft.Will to Ft.Garry_Dot

Locations of Fort William and Fort Garry  (relative area of Fort Douglas)

In the spring of 1817, the colonists returned once again with Selkirk at the helm, planning and building the settlement. He had lost over half a million dollars do so but still forgave the settlers their debt to him. He had the first Indian treaty signed in the Northwest where they gave up claim to the land lying along the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. Things went well until Selkirk  was called to attend the lawsuits brought against him by the Northwest Company for his attack on Fort William and resisting arrest. He left the colony on September 9, 1817 and would not see it again. The rest of his ilfe was plagued by legal problems with no support to be found in Canada or Britain. He died in April, 1820.

The Northwest Company, though rich in furs, could no longer bear the expenses of the trial and expansion over the Rocky Mountains. Selkirk had effectively blocked a union with the Hudson’s Bay Company.  Now he was dead. In 1821 the two trading companies combined to form one of the largest controlling agents in the world under the HBC banner.

Getting it Right

I suppose there are many reasons one would pursue their ancestors down the path and into the past, there to be confronted by errors in judgement, locked and half-open doors and at times utter incredulity.  In the space of the last 24 hours, I have been confronted by the wildest errors both in documents and online. It makes one want to laugh and cry at the same time.  This is not to say I am an expert by any means but seriously?

Look at the example below,JB Beauchamp anc. errors

Apparently, Jean’s father was born after him. Two names have ridiculous variations. Angelique Pambrum, Josephte Dit Doney  and apparently he married another man, Amable! Shall I go on? Shame on Ancestry for letting this happen.  Get as close to the actual docs as you can. In this case I am looking at Sprague and Frye’s The Genealogy of the First Metis Nation 2012. Jean and his wife Angleique Pangman were both born in 1800.

Now to the Glenbow Museum,

JB Beauchamp Glenbow errors

Now these people are are citing Sprague and Frye. Here we have Jean born in 1839 instead of 1829 as in the book (Table 1) to Marie Ann Goneville instead of Janeville. Who’s going to call up Sprague and Frye?

Last night as I was nearing the point of exhaustion, I decided to search the Daigneault family for records. I hit a few censuses. Census takers are the bane of a genealogist’s existence.  I submitted 3 corrections to ancestry. One of the transcribers unbelievably put the husband of the next family down as the spouse of the head of the family before. The other did not even absorb the initials on the census and put a boy down as a sister. The S was for “son”. That being said some of the censuses are almost illegible. Interestingly, I did not find that at all in Ireland and England.

The point is that some of us have to do the work because our ancestors didn’t. Most of my Metis relatives could not even read or write, never mind whether their scrip got ripped off or not.

The Spirit of Resistance

On November 16, 1885, a lone figure stood silently on the gallows waiting to meet his destiny.  His name was Louis David Riel and he was my first cousin 4 times removed. Below, a clip from Ancestry linking my father to the Lagimodiere family from whom Riel`s mother, Julie sprang. Julie`s brother Romain was my  3rd great-grandfather.

Riel Connection snip

You can see in the chart the names that were well-known in the Red River Settlement, Lagimodiere, Diagneault, Cyr, Thibault. Other names in the family were Jennie Cameron, Mary Inkster, Catherine Martineau and of course, Marie Anne Gaboury.  Further back in the family one finds the more obscure appellations, Marie…..(Lesperance), Charlotte….., Josette….(Indienne) and Suzanne Sauteuse. On the 1901 Census of Canada, my great-grandfather, William Daigneault declared  himself and his family as being French Metis (M.F.) and Red in skin colour.

The settlement was established at the confluence of the northern Red and Assiniboine rivers which is in modern-day Winnipeg, Manitoba. It had been a prominent trading place for the aboriginal people of the area, the Cree and Ojibwa among them.  Before that prehistoric people had camped and traded there. These two rivers were part of a canoe route that joined with the Mississippi and Missouri rivers on the southern trade route.

in 1783, the first trading post was built by Pierre Gualtier de la Verendrye. He named it Forte Rouge or Red River.  Many of the French trappers who traded there married First Nations women which eventually led to the creation of a new culture, the Metis.  Initially, there was a society dominated by the First Nations people of the area with whom the French were on amicable terms .

For the main part, the French traders and their offspring blended with the First Nations culture . The buffalo hunt remained one of the main features of life among the people.  Sedentary farming did not come naturally to them. It didn’t even make sense. The winters were long and freezing,  in the spring the Red River would storm its banks and flood the area. The summers were hot and humid and the tall prairie grasses provided ideal forage for the hundreds of buffalo which roamed freely.

The land that had been owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company as part of its vast empire was called Rupert’s Land and it had been given complete authority over it.  Now, the Company’s fortunes were waning. It proved to be a fortunate time for a wealthy and very idealistic  young nobleman, Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk. When his brother died, he inherited a great fortune.  He also had a compassionate heart and hoped to transplant hundreds of Scots who were being driven off their land during the Highland Clearances.

Selkirk realized that to gain enough land he would have to become a major shareholder in the Hudson’s Bay Company.  He bought as much stock as possible and then asked for a grant of 116,000 square miles which covered parts of  present day Manitoba, North Dakota and Minnesota. In May, 1811, the deed was granted willingly, they knew he was likely to lose money.

The first colonists arrived from the Hebrides in Scotland in the summer of 1811. At their head was Miles Macdonell also a Scot and appointed governor of the colony. They had to spend the winter at York Factory before they could come. In August 1812, they arrived at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers and settled at Point Douglas. After they took formal possession of the land, they continued on to Fort Daer on the Pembina River in North Dakota to find food.  The Metis people there supplied them with fish and pemmican made from the buffalo they hunted.  In 1813 more colonists arrived  and they all sowed crops together on long strip plots running back from the river.  The sowing was too late however and the crops failed.

The men who worked for the HBC resented the extra trouble of  having to help the new settlers and the stricter rules Selkirk was enforcing on them. They could not easily make private deals for extra money now. At Fort York, some of Macdonell’s men had been persuaded against him and he found himself with no supplies when they finally got to Point Douglas.

Selkirk had no notion of how serious the rivalry was between the HBC and the North West Company. The Northwest Company was composed largely of Metis and French from Montreal. The settlement lay across the path to the Athabasca country where the Nor’Westers gained most of their wealth. The King’s charter had granted the HBC only the lands that drained into the Hudson Bay. The Athabasca drained into the Arctic but to get to it the Nor’Westers would have to cross what was becoming British territory. They had been able to do this until now because there weren’t enough men to stop them.  The new settlement was composed of British people, faithful to Selkirk who could help close the gates to the Athabasca.  The fur trade war intensified.

Below, a map of trading posts and canoe routes:


Trading Posts and Canoe Routes -Cristian 

The map shows the canoe routes up to Athabasca country where the highest quality furs were found (colder weather made for thicker furs). From Fort Garry and up through Lake Manitoba to  Fort Cumberland  and then to Ile a La Crosse and the Athabasca River, the source of which lies in Jasper National Park, Alberta. At Ile a La Crosse we find mention of Jean Baptiste Beauchamp who travelled with Peter Skene Ogden on the Snake River Expeditons which I have written about hereRichard Daigneault is listed as an employee of the HBC in 1804 here. Jean Baptiste and Vincent Daigneault (my grandmother’s maiden name) are listed as HBC employees for 1855-6 here.

The NWC tried preventing the colonists from even arriving at the settlement by complaining to officials in Britain but did not accomplish that.  Then they tried to stop the Metis at Fort Pembina from selling supplies to the colonists.  Back at Fort Garry, they made every attempt to get the them to desert. They found themselves caught in the trade war.

Macdonell decided to act by issuing the “Pemmican Proclamation” in January 8th, 1814. For one year no supplies were to be taken out the colony without permission. He began to seize pemmican from the Nor’Westers and supervised provisioning of all canoes traveling between Lake Superior and the Athabasca country.  In June of that year the Montreal partners of the NWC arrived and decided that the colony must be destroyed entirely. The settlers were promised free passage and provisions to resettle in Upper Canada (Ontario) or be driven off.

Commander of Fort Gibraltar, Duncan Cameron, tried to win the settlers over with parties and talk of coming on side with the NWC . He even spoke Gaelic to them. When that failed he tried to raise  insurrection among the Metis by driving home the fact that they were forbidden to sell pemmican and that their land was being stolen . The Metis, reverting to the ways of their mothers, intimidated the settlers by killing horses, taking guns and plundering houses. They were setting the stage for what became known as the “Pemmican Wars”. Finally, in June, Macdonell decided it was in the settlers best interests that they give up the fight. It was too late. He and 134 deserting settlers were taken by Duncan Cameron to Fort William where he was to be charged with robbing the company. He did not get charged but the settlers proceeded to Upper Canada to settle.

Likewise,  the settlers who stayed behind were driven out and fled to Norway House on Lake Winnipeg. While they were there, a brigade of HBC officials was making its way from Montreal to the settlement on the Red River.  When they arrived and heard what was happening, they continued to Norway House to bring the settlers back. A few stubborn men had stayed behind to build Fort Douglas and start some crops. On November 3 of 1814, another group of colonists arrived with a new governor, Robert Semple. A second colony had been planted. Below, a map of the Red River Settlement as it was in 1818.

Map RRS 1818

Red River Settlement 1818 -Scan from The Romance of the Prairies by A.L. Burt

Right click on the image to open it in a new tab.



Lá fhéile Pádraig sona duit

Happy St. Patrick’s Day to all my followers and anyone reading this!

Remembering my Irish ancestors, among whom were :

William McDowell my 2nd great grandfather, born in County Down, 1821 died in Tipperary 1901.

George Holmes Phillips my great grandfather, birth place unknown, died in Roscrea 1896.

Elizabeth McDowell Phillips, my great grandmother, born in Alnwick, Northumberland, England in 1855, died in Tipperary in 1896.

Richard Walker Phillips, my grandfather, born in Tipperary, 1890, died St. Rose, Manitoba, Canada in 1964

If you are interested in reading about the life and times of William, who made his fortune working for Lord Stanley you can find it here.

William McDowell c. 1885

William McDowell , Tipperary, Ireland


Time and Circumstance

Interestingly, I have found myself at a point where the lives of 4 different men intersect, two of them my ancestors.  They would be Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company, John McLoughlin, (chief factor of Fort Vancouver, Washington), my 4th great-grandfather, John Dugald Cameron and Joseph Beauchamp, blacksmith at Fort Vancouver and later Fort Victoria.

Simpson was not born under auspicious circumstances, he was the illegitimate son of George Simpson Sr. and an unknown woman in Lochbroom, Scotland.  He was raised by his aunt, Mary Simpson and attended the parish school until he went to London in 1800 around the age of 14. There his uncle Geddes Simpson, who was a partner in a sugar brokerage firm, gave him work. When the company merged with Wedderburn and Company in 1812, Simpson met a man who would greatly influence his future.  Andrew Wedderburn was brother-in-law to Lord Selkirk who established the Red River colony in Manitoba, Canada.

In the early 1800’s, the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) was in a bitter struggle for the fur trade with the North West Company (NWC), the original company based in Montreal.  Any means, fair or foul were used to gain or block access to furs;  price manipulation, selling liquor to the natives, even stealing the other’s furs and trade goods. When the officer in charge of the Athabasca country was about to be charged with murder and the governor in chief in danger of arrest,  the young Simpson’s brother-in-law, then known as Andrew Colville, ushered him into an appointment as locum governor-in-chief. When the NWC offered to buy the HBC out, the company took it as a sign of weakness and made a bid to merge the two companies. The “amalgamation” took place in March 1821.

Once appointed, Simpson travelled tirelessly across the country,  a whirlwind of closures and dismissals following him. The speed he moved at is aptly described in the book “Adventurers”.
“Around the point, two canoes come racing, flying across the water at a killing pace. Nine paddlers in matching dress, singing at the top of their lungs, bring the larger one surging up to the dock. They fall silent and a bagpiper leaps ashore. Behind him strides a man in a magnificent, tartan cloak with a tall beaver hat on his head. ……. In moments the two canoes have vanished up river. Only the echoes of the paddlers’ song remains to convince the bewildered men that the governor’s visit had really happened.”

Simpson was friendly enough but would not tolerate insubordination. No advancement was given to those who did not obey. Still, the officers in the company seldom experienced any economic downturns. That was reserved for the lower ranks. In 1821, he ordered John Lee Lewes and John Dugald Cameron to inspect the old NWC posts west of the Rocky Mountains. They reported back that profit would increase if personnel was reduced.  The only benefit in keeping the Columbia River area open was to provide a buffer zone between the Americans and the rich fur area to the North.

Simpson left York Factory for Fort George in Astoria out flanking John McLoughlin, chief factor of Fort Vancouver (Washington), who had left 20 days previous. The two met in Fort George and together formulated plans to counter the Russian American trade. One of the counter measures was the trapping expedition that we previously found Jean Baptiste Beauchamp on with Peter Skene Ogden. The other plan was to open Fort Langley on the Fraser River. Fort Langley however, was not a good place to ship furs to by water. The flow of the river was just too erratic, furs would have to be traded overland.

After postponing a trip to London for years, Simpson decided he would return to see his  uncle. While he was there he decided to marry Geddes daughter, Frances, in spite of the fact that he was 38 years her senior. Unsurprisingly, Frances found life in Canada next to intolerable and though she had 5 children with Simpson she was very frail. When they returned to England for a visit, she stayed behind for 5 years until finally returning  in 1838.  By that time he had established a residence in Lachine, Quebec.

The violent competition between the HBC and the NWC did not abate in spite of proclamations and warnings from London. In May of 1820, Simpson decided to deliver the Governors proclamation personally to the NWC at Fort William himself instead of the agents in Montreal. The chief factor there was John McLoughlin, later to become known as “the father of Oregon” and this would be their first meeting.

McLoughlin was born in 1784 at Riviere du Loup, Quebec. His father was a farmer and his mother the sister of  Dr. Simon Fraser. John started an apprenticeship under his uncle at the age of 14 and by the time he was 19 he was granted a license to practise.  Instead, he decided in 1803,  to sign on with the NWC for five years as a physician and apprentice clerk.  You can see the transcript of his contract with McTavish, Frobisher and Company here.  Later that year, we see one of my distant cousins, Michel Beauchamp,  contracted to travel to the same place, Kaministiquia (now Thunder Bay, Ontario).

John McLoughlin was a man of ” formidable appearance” and though he did practice medicine at the Fort , he turned out to be a very shrewd trader and bargainer. To that end he rose from £200 a term to a partnership in 1814. In 1816, he traveled to the Red River settlement just after the colony was caught in the Seven Oaks Massacre.  McLoughlin was arrested (being with the NWC) and charged as being a part of the attack on the colony. Once he was cleared of charges, he realized that the future looked bleak for the NWC and encouraged a merger between the two rivals.

At this point, George Simpson arrived at Fort William with the proclamation. As was his way,  McLoughlin endeavored to keep the peace, much to the chagrin of his men. This along with his natural abilities brought him the position of Chief Factor at Rainy Lake . Later he was sent to Fort George in Astoria and was replaced by Dugald Cameron. Soon he became the only chief factor in the Columbia District. The area had been largely unproductive by Simpson’s standards. Personnel was slashed and home grown produce was to replace costly provisions.

The war of 1812 had left the northern boundary undecided which meant that Fort George might very well end up inside American territory.  Fort Vancouver in Washington was soon built and Simpson then ordered the Columbia area hunted dry.  For the next 20 years McLoughlin would become in effect, the superintendent of the entire Columbia River district and controlled the reorganization of the Snake River expeditions, the freemen and Iroqouis were now minor in number and HBC servants used.

When Simpson decided to close Forts Taku and McLoughlin in 1843, we see the arrival of Joseph Ovide Beauchamp in Fort Vancouver. He is found listed in Bruce Watson’s book Lives Lived West of the Divide.

Joseph Beauchamp Lives Lived WEst

I have a great great grandfather named  Joseph Beauchamp who lived during that time but he died in Quebec. He had a son Joseph my great grandfather. I suspect that this Joseph was again a removed cousin.

By all accounts and especially those of Roderick Finlayson who kept the  Fort Victoria Journals, Joseph was a handful.  His native wife, Marguerite died in 1847 after the birth of a daughter, Caroline, in Fort Vancouver. The following year he transferred to Fort Victoria where he promptly lost one of his fingers which continued to pain him for some time.  He remarried in 1848 to an unknown woman and was noted as being sick and insolent most of the time. Then in 1850, he lost his daughter Caroline. He died at Fort Victoria in 1887.  His HBC records have him listed as being in Oregon in 1853-4, his position listed as “sundries”.  That piques my interest.  I would conjecture that Joseph drank a bit.  The entire Fort was dependent on him to make and repair the tools needed to keep things running and he is mentioned very frequently throughout Finlayson’s journals.

Among the many differences between John McLoughlin and George Simpson, the final rivet was the death of John McLoughlin Jr. at Fort Stikine, Alaska in April of 1842. Fort Stikine had a singular reputation for violence. John had been left in charge of the Fort when he was murdered by Urbain Héroux during a confrontation. Charges of self defense were never brought to trial because the incident took place in Russian territory.  Simpson did not proceed on the matter but instead wrote a very terse letter to the father informing him of the matter, using the boy’s reputation as a precedent. McLoughlin wrote letter after letter to London claiming the injustice of the situation and his son’s name was eventually cleared.  However, they were not about to let the indispensable Simpson go. It was decided that the lowering profits and McLoughlin’s charity towards the new settlers in the Willamette were sufficient reason to retire him. He died September 3, 1857 in Oregon City.

John S. Galbraith, “SIMPSON, Sir GEORGE,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 8, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed March 8, 2018,

W. Kaye Lamb, “McLOUGHLIN, JOHN,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 8, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed March 8, 2018,

Sylvia Van Kirk, “CAMERON, JOHN DUGALD,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 8, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed March 8, 2018,

U.S. National Park Service Website: The Fort Vancouver Community

Watson, Bruce McIntyre. Lives Lived West of the Divide. Kelowna: Centre for Social, Spatial, and Economic Justice, University of British Columbia, 2010.

Christopher Moore, Adventurers Hudson’s Bay Company The Epic Story, 2000, Madison Press Books

“Fort Victoria Journal”, Beauchamp, Joseph Ovide, Hudson’s Bay Company Archives, B.226/ a/1, edited and transcribed by Graham Brazier et al, eds. (March 9, 2018)